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六级讲座听力之讲座的结构特点

2017-06-05 17:28[四六级听力] 来源: 浏览: 次 评论:
英语讲座/讲话是演讲者/讲话者用英语传授知识,发表见解等的特殊口语形式,具有自身的结构特点。六级考生如果对其结构缺乏一定的了解,听讲座/讲话时可能会错过重要信息,影响答题效果。

一段完整的英语讲座/讲话一般也由开头,主体,结尾三部分组成,符合“总(概述)——分(详论)——总(总结)”的整体布局,不过每部分内部的具体构成与一般听力篇章还是有所区别。

英语讲座/讲话的开头常包括开场寒暄,演讲者/讲话人介绍(姓名、身份、成就等),主题概述,讲座/讲话提纲等。例如:

Moderator: Hello Ladies and Gentleman, it gives me great pleasure to introduce our keynote speaker for today's session, Dr. Howard Miller. Dr. Miller, Professor of Sociology at Washington University, has written numerous articles and books on the issues facing older Americans in our graying society for the past 15 years.
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Dr. Miller: Thank you for that introduction. Today, I'd like to preface my remarks with a story from my own life which I feel highlights the common concerns that bring us here together…(CET官方样题一)

从上例我们可以看出,在讲话正式开始前,主持人有一段寒暄,介绍了主讲人的姓名“Dr. Howard Miller”,身份“Professor of Sociology at Washington University”,研究领域与成果“numerous articles and books on the issues facing older Americans in our graying society for the past 15 years”。主讲人的信息可看作是讲座的背景,主讲人的研究领域通常与他所做的讲座或讲话有关。

由于听力测试时长的限制,开场寒暄和演讲者/讲话人介绍常会在试题中省略。主题概述最为重要,往往是讲座/讲话必不可少的部分,而且分话题或分论点也常会涵盖在主题概述之中。如果是系列讲座,讲座开篇通常还有对之前讲座内容的回顾。例如:

I'd like to look at a vital aspect of e-commerce, and that is the nature of the product or service. There are certain products and services that are very suitable for selling online, and others that simply don't work. (CET 6官方样题三)

从上面的例子可以看出,讲演者开门见山点明主题“a vital aspect of e-commerce”,“the nature of the product or service”,并紧接着概述主题内容“There are certain products and services that are very suitable for selling online, and others that simply don’t work”,其中也提示了分话题分别关于“products”和“services”。

通过上面的分析不难发现,讲座/讲话一开头就会概述主题内容,揭示整体结构。开头部分的各个成分增删有度、相互交织,都是为了达到一个目的——便于听众了解讲座主旨,把握讲座内容发展的逻辑脉络。提出并概述主题其实就是向听众表明即将传递的信息。讲座/讲话的开头在某种程度上类似于新闻报道的导语,都包含了最重要的信息。可以说,听懂开头对理解讲座/讲话能起到事半功倍的效果。

英语讲座/讲话的主体部分通常是对主题的细化,用例子、数据、专家言论等进行的详细论述。在讲座开头提出并概述主题之后,演讲者/讲话人紧接着就会用大段篇幅阐述主题。为了便于听众理解与接受,演讲者通常会将讲座主题进一步细化为多个分话题或分论点,以更好地组织讲座内容。演讲者有时会在讲座开头以列提纲的方式将分话题集中提出,有时则会跳过这一部分直接进入讲座主体,将一个分话题论述清楚后再提出另一个。对主题的论证是整个讲座的重中之重,是最必不可少的部分。

而在论述分话题时,演讲者/讲话人会使用举例子、列数据、作比较、引用权威专家观点等多种方法。其中举例法最为常用,例子能让抽象的理论变具体,生涩的概念变生动。演讲者能以物为例,也能举事为例。例如:

I'd like to look at a vital aspect of e-commerce, and that is the nature of the product or service. There are certain products and services that are very suitable for selling online, and others that simply don't work.

Suitable products generally have a high value-to-weight ratio. Items such as CDs and DVDs are obvious examples. Books, although heavier and so more expensive to post, still have a high enough value-to-weight ratio, as the success of Amazon, which started off selling only books, shows. Laptop computers are another good product for selling online.

Digital products, such as software, films and music, can be sold in a purely virtual environment. The goods are paid for by online transactions, and then downloaded onto the buyer's computer. There are no postage or delivery costs, so prices can be kept low.

Many successful virtual companies provide digital services, such as financial transactions, in the case of Paypal, or means of communication, as Skype does. The key to success here is providing an easy-to-use, reliable service. Do this and you can easily become the market leader, as Skype has proved.

Products which are potentially embarrassing to buy also do well in the virtual environment. Some of the most profitable e-commerce companies are those selling sex-related products or services. For a similar reason, online gambling is highly popular.

Products which are usually considered unsuitable for selling online include those that have a taste or smell component. Food, especially fresh food, falls into this category, along with perfume. Clothes and other items that need to be tried on such as diamond rings and gold necklaces are generally not suited to virtual retailing, and, of course, items with a low value-to-weight ratio.

There are exceptions, though. Online grocery shopping has really taken off, with most major supermarkets offering the service. The inconvenience of not being able to see the food you are buying is outweighed by the time saved and convenience of having the goods delivered. Typical users of online supermarkets include the elderly, people who work long hours and those without their own transport.  (CET 6官方样题三)

在上面的例子中,演讲者先在开头提出并概述主题“There are certain products and services that are very suitable for selling online, and others that simply don't work”。然后演讲者将“certain”细化成几个分点:“suitable products generally have a high value-to-weight ratio”;“digital products…can be sold in a purely virtual environment”;“many successful virtual companies provide digital services such as financial transactions…or means of communication”;“products which are potentially embarrassing to buy also do well in the virtual environment”。“products [with] a high value-to-weight ratio”、“digital products”、“digital services”和“products…potentially embarrassing to buy”作为四个分话题构成了讲座的主体。

演讲者在论述分话题时主要使用了举例法。在说明“products [with] a high value-to-weight ratio”时,举了“CDs and DVDs”、“Books”、“Laptop computers”, 而且还用“the success of Amazon”特别支撑“Books”;讲解“digital products”以“software, films and music”为例;论述“digital services”则举“Paypal”和“Skype”为例,“Skype”还被特别强调;又用“sex-related products or services”和“online gambling”为例说明“products…potentially embarrassing to buy”。

讲座/讲话的主体就是将演讲主题分解成分话题或子论点,再逐条论述。这部分层次最复杂,内容也最丰富。论述过程中演讲者往往会使用举例、对比等多种方法,以使自己的立论更坚实,观点更有说服力。如果说讲座/讲话的开头部分偏重听懂大意,那么主体部分的听力则还要兼顾细节。

英语讲座/讲话的结尾常包括总结、展望或呼吁、补充、致谢、互动等。演讲者在论述完主题后,常会总结全文,概括要点,重申主题,甚至会将主题升华到更高的层次。总结之后,演讲者有时会结合主题展望未来,针对讲座讨论的问题提出对应的解决方案,给出自己的处理建议。受时间等客观条件所限,讲座对主题的探讨不可能面面俱到,有些跟主题相关但不太重要的信息,演讲者并不将其置于讲座主体中详细探讨。但如果演讲者认为听众对这些信息有必要了解一二,他可能会在结尾处稍加提及。

讲座行将结束时演讲者还会感谢听众的参与。因为讲座结尾篇幅有限,上述成分常会彼此渗透,次序也可能有所变化。此外,在主讲人结束自己的演讲或讲话后,通常还有一个听众提问的互动环节,问题一般跟讲座主题有关。不过出于听力时长的考虑,这个互动环节往往不会保留在录音中。无论是总结式还是补充式,讲座/讲话结尾处的内容主要是为了让听众更确切、更全面地理解讲座主题。演讲者在讲话结束前将发散开的思路聚拢,让分解的话题或论点再度融合,又一次向听众展现讲座全貌。通过再次突出主题,确保听众能把握讲座的重点。在理解前文(讲座/讲话开头,主体)的基础上听懂讲座/讲话结尾,对正确理解讲座主旨大意至关重要。

开头,主体,结尾三大部分构成了英语讲座/讲话的整体结构,帮助演讲者达成自己的交际目的。演讲者首先提出讲座主题,提示讲座结构,接着围绕主题进行讲解论述,最后对讲授内容做出总结与评价。讲座/讲话中有些成分必不可少,有些则可有可无,各成分也未必按线性依次排列,可能相互交织、渗透,形成网状结构,各成分的排列顺序也根据具体情况有所变化。

但无论如何,演讲者的目的是不变的——让听众更深刻、全面地掌握讲座内容。值得一提的是,由于六级讲座/讲话听力时间和篇幅的限制,通常出现在考题中的听力材料仅仅是一段完整讲座/讲话的片段。可能是讲座/讲话的开头部分,也可能是中间某一个分话题。但无论是哪一种情况,都会围绕某一个特定话题展开。

编辑推荐:

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